In one of its studies The National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey found, that 59% of men, 49% of women are overweight and 19% of men, 25% of women are obese. These two notions preoccupy health care specialists for a long time and serious exam methods and prevention programs are developed to determine and prevent this condition.
We can define obesity as a surplus of the adipose tissue and to define the exact quantity of the fat content specialists apply two indexes: the relative weight (RW) and the body mass index (BMI). As the use of BMI is more accurate, in order to calculate it, we divide body weight (kg) with the height (m) raised to the second power. According to the National Institutes of Health the normal BMI ranges between 18.5 and 24.9, overweight is between 25-29.9, obesity I is BMI between 30-34.9, obesity II is 35-39.9 and obesity III (extreme) is BMI over 40.
As obesity increases both morbidity and mortality and is associated with several serious diseases, it needs treatment. The most effective to achieve weight loss methods would be calorie poor diet, behavior therapy, the change of eating habits, social support, weight loss programs and exercise.
Though to treat obesity with diminishing operation is considered the last option, several patience has already undergone surgery. VBG and roux-en-Y gastric by-pass are considered the most common options and in some institutes these interventions are handled with laparoscopy. Both interventions result in significant weight loss, but complications can also be expected after the surgeries.
A study published in the August issue of Medical Care found that 40 % of bariatric surgery patients develop dangerous and expensive medical complications in the six months following the surgery. The complications include "dumping syndrome," involving vomiting, diarrhea and reflux, leaks from surgically joining the intestine and stomach, hernias, pneumonia, tromboembolia, stoma stenosis and infections. The mortality within 30 days after the surgery however is small, ranging between 0-1%.
These kinds of operations are recommended to patience with a BMI higher than 40 or more than 35 and obesity is followed by other associating diseases. They shouldn't be the first options as weight loss can be achieved in several other safer and less expensive methods.